Tag Archives: Common Core Standards

English 9 Enriched: Frankenstein and the Sublime in Art

This Visible Thinking activity is done with a twist.  Instead of merely sharing something simple that they see, think, or wonder, students must stretch to use adjective/noun combinations for what they see, similes for what they think, and metaphors for what they wonder… all relating to the sublime.

I let the classes select one of the following paintings:

800px-Cole_Thomas_The_Course_of_Empire_The_Arcadian_or_Pastoral_State_1836

The Arcadian or Pastoral State by Thomas Cole

800px-Cole_Thomas_The_Course_of_Empire_The_Savage_State_1836

The Savage State by Thomas Cole

il-penseroso-1845_jpg!Blog

Il Penseroso by Thomas Cole (inspired by “L’Allegro,” a poem by John Milton)

Peace%20at%20Sunset%20Thomas%20Cole

Peace at Sunset by Thomas Cole

Kindred Spirits

Kindred Spirits by Asher Brown Durand (depicting painter Thomas Cole and poet William Cullen Bryant)

 

SEE:

Students list ten very specific details they see in the painting, and then share their list with a partner.  Any details that they have in common are marked with a checkmark (so that less obvious details stand out to them for later).

THINK:

Students put three things they think about the painting represents the sublime.

WONDER:

Students put three things they wonder about the painting represents the sublime.

Students each get one Post-It Note.  One color for each: See, Think, or Wonder. 

For those with the color for SEE, they have to use an adjective/adjective/noun combination to describe something they see that represents the sublime.

For those with the color for THINK, they have to create a simile about how they think something in the painting represents the sublime.

For those with the color for WONDER, they have to create a metaphor for what they wonder about how the artist created the sublime on canvas.

Students then share Post-It Notes on the front board.

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WRITING:

Students will write a three chunk paragraph about how the painting is a representation of the sublime, much like Victor’s escape to nature after the deaths of William and Justine.  Be sure to define and explain “sublime” as it relates to both the painting and the novel.

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Filed under Domain 1: Planning and Preparation, Domain 2: Classroom Environment, Domain 3: Instruction, English 9 Enriched, Visible Thinking

Reflections on Domain 4: Professional Responsibilities

4a.  Reflecting on Teaching

As I look back on this 2012-2013 school year, I can see some things that really worked for me and for my students, and I will not be changing those.  For example:

~ Working in cooperative groups for various units.   This tends to work better at the enriched level as opposed to the regents because the enriched kids tend to be more focused and not quite as chatty about things non-related to the task at hand.   As we did close reading of materials, I found that some weaker students benefited from having a strong reader in the group to kind of lead them along.   Quite often I heard phrases like, “How’d you come up with that?” and “Show me where you got that cuz I ain’t seein’ it.”  

~ Using Visible Thinking Exercises.  This technique has been the single greatest tool I have gotten in the past several years through Professional Development.  I wish I had been introduced to it much earlier!   Using these exercises helps to focus writing, especially the See/Think/Wonder exercise for coming up with Concrete Details (CDs) and Commentary (CMs) for writing.  Students become more observant while examining paintings/photographs/music videos/film clips, and they begin to look for less obvious details as the year progresses.  This skill is transferred to close reading as we examine specific passages from text.   The regents students did it with articles about migrant farm workers, as well as articles relating to Roosevelt’s New Deal in the first quarter when we read Of Mice and Men.  During that time, the enriched students were working with Every Bone Tells a Story, and each group did close readings relating to a particular hominid.  When all classes were working with The Odyssey in some form in the second quarter, students examined passages of the poetry, or analyzed Homeric similes.   Both levels were also given speeches from Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet to analyze closely, and the enriched kids had to analyze and memorize a 20 line piece from one of Shakespeare’s other plays.  And we use the Visible Thinking technique with Frankenstein (9E) and Plato’s “Apology” (9R) in the fourth quarter.

~ Every Bone Tells a Story as a non-fiction work for English 9 Enriched.    I love how the book was divided into the four hominins, and then each section was divided into: Discoveries (Expository Writing), Deductions (Research), and Debates (Persuasive Writing).  Each group worked with each of the three types of writing as it pertained to their assigned hominid.   This worked very, very well at the beginning of the year as I was introducing the different types of writing that we would be doing during the rest of the year.   Since I plan to keep using this book, I hope that the district can find the funds to purchase copies for the students instead of me having to ask them to buy the books themselves.

~ Plato’s “Apology” and Evidence-Based Claims.  Ok, I have to admit that I dragged my heels on this one, but only by trying it out would I really have the right to complain (hence, following the PARCC framework for the first quarter?).  I was actually surprised at how much the worksheets reflected work that I was already doing with my students.  The Forming Evidence Based Claims worksheet is actually a version of See/Think/Wonder, while the Organizing Evidence Based Claims worksheet asks kids to create a thesis statement with two signposts (something I’d already taught them earlier in the year).   While I would not change teaching it, I WILL do this in the beginning of the year with students and use the worksheets consistently (I found they work well for literature as well because I used them with Frankenstein in the enriched classes).

Things that I will change:

~ no PARCC framework next year.  It’s too much work for a single teacher to keep up with. 

~ “Apology” will be moved to the beginning of the year, followed by short stories.  I began the year with Of Mice and Men, and I really didn’t like the flow.  However, I had been following the PARCC, so I jumped right into a full-length text.  It would have been a better transition to do the Evidence-Based Claims with Plato first, and then transfer that skill to a full-length research project instead of the other way around; however, in my defense, the Plato unit wasn’t available in September.

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4b.  Maintaining accurate records

One tool that helps with maintaining accurate records of dates and times of when work was turned in is the online website that I have for each classroom.  From my own funds, I purchased five networking classroom websites from Spruz.com.  Each class is held privately, meaning that no one may join in or visit the website unless he/she is a member approved by me.  I maintain the highest privacy allowances on the site in an attempt to insure student internet safety, and no one may join the site using a made-up screen name.  This is so that I know exactly who is responsible for posting anything on the site.  When an assignment is completed online, it is dated and time-stamped, so I know exactly when it was done.  There is no argument about late assignments with this tool. 

I also make use of the Infinite Campus grade book online.  Parents may see grades on the portal and keep track of their child’s progress.  I have both positive and negative reactions to this.  On the positive side, parents can see what a child is missing and encourage him/her to turn the work in, or if the child does poorly on a quiz, the parent can intervene with the child.  On the flip side, some parents check the portal constantly and question grading practices for every little point in an attempt to raise their child’s grades. 

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4c.  Communicating with families

All information about the course is sent to the parents over the summer so that they are informed about what their child can expect.  I send expectations, supplies lists, and a list of reading materials for the upcoming school year.

Most frequently, I communicate with families via email.  This gives me an electronic record of the communication, and I always include Mr. McBride (as English Department Supervisor) and the student’s house office administrator in the conversation.   I send emails for significantly late work, failing averages at the halfway point in a quarter, or missing work, and I make suggestions for how a student may improve his/her grade.  I also send emails when a struggling student has improved as a motivation for continued improvement.  If a parent does not respond to my email I follow with a phone call and log the call on Infinite Campus. 

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4d.  Participating in a professional community

I serve as a member of the Webster School District Policy Board where we work to design and bring about meaningful professional development opportunities for our teachers.  Our biggest push this year has been for putting together Creative Collaborations where teachers can work together on a common goal.

I participate in a PLC with another 9th grade English teacher, but I also discuss curriculum and other school business with other teachers as well.

For the past three years, I have served the school as the head yearbook advisor, maintaining accurate financial records and helping students and my co-advisor create a quality product.  I have also served as a ski club chaperone for the past eight years, and I was a class advisor for three years from 2007-2010.   Our committee planned the 2008 Junior Prom and the 2009 Senior Ball.

This will be the fifth year that my students will have published an anthology of short stories that follow the Hero’s Journey pattern outlined by mythologist Joseph Campbell.  Each year, the short story project dovetails one of the units that we have worked with.  In the 2008-2009 school year, we read real-life stories of heroes.  Because of the popularity of the television show Heroes at the time, we patterned our story after the television show by giving ordinary people super-powers and creating our own superhero tales in In The Footsteps…  In 2009-2010, we read Douglas Adams’ The Long Dark Tea-Time of the Soul in which humans created immortal characters/gods in their cultures and then later forgot about them.  Because the characters were immortal and could not die, they became the forgotten and lonely street-people.  Our task was to “rescue” an immortal by taking the time to learn and tell the story of a student-created immortal who was on the brink of being forgotten forever in We Remember…  During the 2010-2011 school year, we read The Hobbit, and so students created quest tales that included a long journey.  The culmination of that project was Forged Through Trials.  Last year’s project was also inspired by a television series and went with our Cultural Mythology unit.  In the spirit of Once Upon a Time, students selected a myth or fairy tale and modernized it.  The end result was Altered Reflections.  Each book was published online and is currently available worldwide.  This was the project followed by the Joseph Campbell Foundation that led to my participation in the international Symposium on Mythology.  This year’s project surrounds a non-fiction work, Every Bone Tells a Story.    Students selected one of the four anthropological discoveries from the text, and they researched the region/culture in which the person may have lived.  From there, they are putting flesh on the bones and creating stories for the hominins.  Lapedo Child and Turkana Boy might have rite of passage tales or a coming of age story.  Kennewick Man might have a long-journey story, while Ice Man just might be a murder mystery.  All might include Land of the Dead tales.  The possibilities are many, so students have the opportunity to be creative all the while honing their research skills as the settings must reflect the region and ancient culture.   The students then vote on the top stories to be included in the anthology.   At the end of the project, I present the students’ published work at the 9th grade awards ceremony, and we have a book signing celebration in the school library, complete with a cake bearing the book’s cover.

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4e.  Growing and developing professionally

I am a member of the Joseph Campbell Foundation, which correlates with my work in teaching cultural mythology and The Hero’s Journey to my students.  In 2012, I was selected to present at an international Symposium on Mythology in Santa Barbara, California about the work I have done with my enriched students over the years, particularly the long-term short story project that we do annually, which culminates in the publication of an anthology.  As a result of my presentation, the Joseph Campbell Foundation has asked me to serve as one of the lead teachers on a committee that will create an international curriculum on mythology to be funded by a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities.

I have taken advantage of the Webster Central School District’s professional development offering on Visible Thinking activities in the classroom.  This practice has really added depth to my classroom discussions and to student sharing/writing.  There are examples of Visible Thinking exercises posted for your perusal. 

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4f.  Demonstrating professionalism

I work hard to maintain my integrity in my chosen profession.  I take my charge to educate students very seriously, and I am consistent in my dealings with students.  While I may be strict, I believe that I am extremely fair and that I do whatever is necessary to see students succeed. 

I offer credit recovery options for students who are missing work.  Because I believe that all assignments are important and should be completed, I have given students “incomplete” grades on report cards until all work has been done. 

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Filed under Domain 4: Professional Responsibilities, Reflections on the Danielson Framework

Reflections on Domain 2: Classroom Environment

2a. Creating an environment of respect and rapport

On the first day of class, I give students a course expectations sheet.  On it, I outline classroom procedures, materials/supplies needed, class rules, grading and assessment practices, and a list of units of study for the year.  I also include contact information for parents and students alike. 

One thing that I absolutely insist upon in my classroom is that we all respect one another.  I do not allow teasing or bullying of any kind, and I when I hear kids “joking” with one another in what may be considered a disrespectful way, I make students apologize to one another.  As part of classroom respect, I insist that gentlemen do not wear hats indoors, undergarments are UNDER clothing, electronics are where I cannot see them, and food is left in the cafeteria. 

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2b. Establishing a culture for learning

Once students know what to expect, I have very few discipline problems.  I keep students on task by asking questions pertaining to the reading/task at hand whenever they seem to be veering on to another path. 

I display their work around the room, particularly their creative work.   I have posted pictures of the posters they have created (and may refer back to as needed when they are hanging up), as well as the “Who’s Who” masks/posters in The Odyssey.   I also display the Visible Thinking exercises for the unit so that we may refer back to things they may have seen or thought about earlier in the unit.

I have a specific shelf for each class’ journals, as well as reference materials around the room for them to use (dictionaries, thesauri, etc).   When a student asks me what something means, they have come to know that my response to them will be, “Get thee to a dictionary.”  

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2c. Managing classroom procedures

Kids know that we have set routines for group work, their packets are set up in a similar fashion, their vocabualry quizzes follow a specific format, as do their reading quizzes.  I create this routine so that they become comfortable in knowing what is coming.  When they see their journals on their desks, they know that we are doing a Visible Thinking exercise.  When they trade papers for peer grading, they know automatically that they have to have a red pen and put their name in the lower right-hand corner.  They also know that they are expected to have the MLA heading on every piece of work that comes in for a grade, and that the heading is checked by peers during written/vocab quizzes. 

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2d. Managing student behavior

If students know what to expect, then there are very few surprises.  The fewer surprises, the more comfortable they seem with a routine, and classes run smoothly.

I expect that students will refer to me as Ms Woodward, and not simply as “Woodward.”  I also expect that they will respect my boundaries and work space just as I respect theirs.  That means that students may not simply walk up to my desk and help themselves to anything they find (such as a writing utensil or a stapler).   I remind them that I would never come up to their desk to help myself, so they may not do so with my desk.  Students seem to understand and respect this guideline.

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2e. Organizing physical space

I change the configuration of my room quite frequently.  While I begin the year in rows (better for me to learn their names from a seating chart), I do form various sized groups for each unit, depending up on how many groups I need.  For Every Bone Tells a Story, I needed four groups, one for each hominid.   When I moved on to The Odyssey, I used eight groups because of the wide array of cultural mythology we were using.   In the third quarter, we were in six groups for Romeo and Juliet; three pairs of feuding families.   In the 4th quarter, we have paired rows where students “go head to head” with a partner.  I mixed students up during the year so that they had the opportunity to work with as many people in the class as possible.

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Filed under Domain 2: Classroom Environment, Reflections on the Danielson Framework

Reflections on Domain 1: Planning and Preparation

1a. Demonstrating knowledge of content and pedagogy

I have taken several workshops in Visible Thinking, and I use it consistently in my classroom.  I have found that the SEE/THINK/WONDER exercise is a wonderful lead-in to the Jane Schaeffer style of writing embraced by the Webster Central School District.

I have an in-depth knowledge of mythology and the Hero’s Journey process through my association with the Joseph Campbell Foundation and as past leader of the Mythological RoundTable (R) Group of Rochester.  I use this knowledge to create lessons that create a greater understanding of Cultural Mythology and The Odyssey

Student work with the Hero’s Journey culminates in the publication of an annual anthology of short stories.  My experience with on-line publishing through the publication of my own books aids me in this part of my work with students.  As such, I have working knowledge of what makes good writing.

As a stage performer who was trained in Theatre during a summer session at Thames Valley University in London, England under the tutelage of Rodney West from the Royal Shakespeare Company, I have much to bring to my students’ understanding of theatre and plays, particularly the works of William Shakespeare.  I also perform with various community theatre companies in the Rochester area.

During the summer of 2012, I did a lot of work studying the PARCC framework in anticipation of it being adopted by New York State.  I also wanted to see how well the framework would fit our schedule, our curriculum, and our classes.  I did the entire first quarter step-by-step according to the PARCC framework, and found it to be something that individual students MIGHT be able to be successful at (if they were already proficient writers), but certainly NOT realistic from a feedback/grading perspective.  In one quarter, I read and graded (not to my usual scale) over TWO THOUSAND pieces of writing because I followed the PARCC framework to the letter.  I was exhausted, and the feedback was NOT what I have been able to provide in the past.  Imagine how thankful I was to learn that New York decided NOT to go with the PARCC framework for its schools!!  I dropped it in the 2nd quarter.

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1b. Demonstrating knowledge of students

Early in the year, the English Department gave a pre-assessment so as to determine the strengths and weaknesses of our particular group of students.  Through the results, I knew what I needed to focus on at least in the realm of persuasive writing, with my classes.

As a teacher of the enriched program, students are expected to come in with strong writing skills, so I create lessons that involve higher level thinking and reasoning skills, and I challenge their use of effective sentence structure and diction.  I am also familiar with what is popular in teenage literature, and since these are most likely my readers of current young adult fiction, I work to connect the curriculum literature they will be assigned to that which they read by choice.

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1c. Setting instructional outcomes

I use District-approved rubrics for grading writing assignments, particularly those that model state assessments.  I allow students to see the rubrics in advance so that they are aware of the expectations.   For some long-term projects, I show them models of former students’ work (many allow me to keep their projects afterwards) so that they can get an idea of what I am looking for in their work. 

Although I teach similar literature to both levels (English 9 enriched and 9 Regents), I adapt lessons for each level.  There are things I may have to work more on with the Regents kids (like doing more close readings of certain speeches in Romeo and Juliet) than are necessary with the Enriched students.   I also teach an abridged poetry version of The Odyssey to the Regents students, while my Enriched students read a full-length prose version.   I choose the poetry version for the Regents kids to help prepare them for when we read Shakespeare (which is primarily in poetry).

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1d. Demonstrating knowledge of resources

For each class, I purchase (out of my own pocket) five separate Spruz websites for online class assignments.  I maintain and weekly update these websites while also monitoring student performance on the online assessments.

When publishing the student short story anthology, I am savvy with using Lulu.  I work with students on creating the cover for the book, and then I do the uploading and final editing for publication.  I also post websites of various writing contests so that students may submit their work for possible publication and honors.

On the classroom sites, I place links to helpful online sources for all units.

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1e. Designing coherent instruction

I create study guides for my students that not only provide background material about the author and topics/ideas we shall be exploring in a particular piece, but I give them vocabulary lists, reading questions, Reader Response questions, and literary analysis questions.   Because I have seen how Visible Thinking exercises have benefited my students’ writing in the past, I work to create thoughtful Visible Thinking exercises to accompany the units of study.  I know that students need to be prepared for the state tests,  so I design lessons and assessments that mirror what they might see in the future.

My curriculum advisor, Jeremy McBride, has copies of all my unit plans on file.

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1f. Designing student assessments

All assessments are designed to test skills that students will need to be successful in all areas of English Language Arts, but particularly those that will be presented on state (and soon, federal) standardized tests.  I particularly focus on the areas of:

1.  persuasive writing

2.  literary analysis

3.  close reading of both fiction and non-fiction

4.  research

 

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Filed under Domain 1: Planning and Preparation, Reflections on the Danielson Framework

English 9 Enriched: Frankenstein- Forming Evidence-Based Claims

Because of how the Forming EBC worksheets seemed to be helping my Regents kids better organize their ideas (as opposed to how we had been doing the same activity earlier in the year in a journal…they must prefer worksheets), I decided to see the sheets might work with my Enriched kids and Frankenstein.

I had the kids read the four letter from Robert Walton at the beginning of the novel.  I then listed on the overhead several ideas surrounding Walton:  his dream, his willingness to sacrifice for others, his doubts, his education, his relationship with his sister, his relationship with others (besides his sister), his financial background, his resolve, and his loneliness.   These were from Prestwick House’s Activity Pack for Frankenstein.

I then instructed the kids to “go head to head” with their partner…or in one case, a group of three because we had an odd number (meaning that they had to turn their desks to face the person across the row from them so that they could talk face to face).   Once they were in place, I drew names for them to choose which of the ideas about Walton each pair wanted to work with.   The catch was that once a topic was chosen, it was off limits for the next pair.  In one class, we started at the beginning once all eight had been selected by the first groups.  That gave the kids in that particular class who were drawn last an opportunity to have some choice instead of being “stuck” like most last groups are.

Alpha 1 Forming EBC

Using a Forming Evidence-Based Claims worksheet (like those in the Regents classes with Plato’s “Apology”), the partners had to argue and agree on what three pieces of textual evidence they were going to use to best support the idea they’d chosen.  Once they had their textual support, they had to explain why that detail was important to the topic.  Finally, they had to make a claim about Robert Walton’s character based on the evidence.

Delta 1 Forming EBC

These are some examples of student work:

 

Katie Fr Letters 1-4 EBC

In this, Katie is making the claim that Robert Walton is curious.  She also extends her claim with several points (signposts).  This is a very strong response.

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Brittany Fr Letters 1-4 EBC

Brittany is making the claim that Robert Walton is wealthy.  This is situational for the character, not a character trait (which is what was assigned).   She and her partner will have to go head-to-head once more to come up with a trait that is specific to Walton’s character based on the fact that he was a wealthy man.  She does state that “wealth wasn’t an important thing in his life,” so I will ask her and her partner to dig more into that idea.

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Melissa Fr Letters 1-4 EBC

Melissa claims that Robert Walton is compassionate and a loyal friend when she and her partner examined Robert Walton’s relationships with others.   She sites Robert Walton’s interactions with the stranger that has boarded his ship in the middle of the tundra.  She also offers points (signposts) to explain her claim.

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Next class, the students will use the information from these worksheets to write a paragraph characterizing one aspect of Robert Walton.  The “Claim” sentences will serve as the topic sentences for the paragraphs, the quotations will be the concrete details (CDs), and the “Connecting the Details” responses will serve as part of their commentary (CMs).

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Filed under Domain 1: Planning and Preparation, Domain 2: Classroom Environment, Domain 3: Instruction, English 9 Enriched, Visible Thinking

English 9 Regents: Lesson Plan Breakdown for Plato’s “Apology”

Based on the unit created by Odell Education (see link in a previous post), I outlined a breakdown of the lessons and activities relating to Evidence Based Claims (EBCs):

Plato’s “Apology”- daily lesson plans

(Broken down from the on-line unit from Odell Education)

 

 Day 1- Part I (activities 1 and 2):

  • Intro to materials and the unit (10-15 min)
  • Independent reading paragraphs 1 and 2 ONLY (RHA) and then PARAPHRASE the two paragraphs sentence by sentence (P1=9, P2=2).  To demonstrate understanding, students must put Plato’s words into their own.  Any new/unfamiliar words go in the boxes at the bottom with definitions.
  • Once paraphrased, answer the question:  What is Socrates accused of?  Determine specific parts of the text that make you think so and add embedded quotations to your response.  Citation will be (Plato, line ___).
  • Finish for homework: will be collected

 

Day 2-Part I (activity 3):

  • Teacher reads aloud paragraphs 1 and 2 that students have already paraphrased.

Comprehension Quiz:

      1.   What is Socrates being accused of? (already written in the homework)

2.  How does Socrates make it clear that he is innocent?

3.  How does Socrates distinguish himself from other teachers?

 

  • Students may use homework to complete the questions.  All muse be based on specific textual evidence as support and include embedded quotations.
  • Choose two students and place their paraphrases on the ELMO.  Discuss paraphrases: did students get it in an independent read?
  • Collect and grade (falls under “Reading” in the grade book)

 

Day 3-Part I (activities I-4 and II-1):

  • Pass out Forming Evidence Based Claims Handout and go over (point out similarities to See/Think/ Wonder that we have done in Visible Thinking exercises).  Point out the “thinking” details; they will need to come up with others that support the same claim (work with partner)
  • Independent reading paragraphs 3-6 (RHA) and then PARAPHRASE the paragraphs sentence by sentence.   To demonstrate understanding, students must put Plato’s words into their own.  Any new/unfamiliar words go in the boxes at the bottom with definitions.
  • Pass out blank Forming Evidence Based Claims worksheets; students complete for paragraphs 3-6
  • Finish for homework; to be collected.

 

Day 4-Part II (activity 2):

  • Teacher reads aloud paragraphs 3-6 that students have already paraphrased.
  • In partners, students will discuss and write responses to the following questions:
    • 1. What does the oracle say about Socrates?
    • 2. What does Socrates do in an attempt to test the truth of the oracle’s prophecy?
    • 3.  Why do Socrates’ actions incite the anger of his peers?
    • All responses must include embedded quotations as supportive evidence (taken from the Forming EBC sheets)
    • Collect paraphrases and Forming EBC worksheets (reading grade) and answers to questions (analysis grade)
    • Choose two students and place their paraphrases on the ELMO.  Discuss paraphrases: did students get it in an independent read?

 

Day 5-Part II (activity 3):

  • Briefly discuss responses to questions from previous day (use ELMO)
  • Pass out Making Evidence Based Claims handout and go over
  • Go over Clarity Checklist (in packet)
  • Students must make claims about what they have read so far (paragraphs 1-6)
  • Pass out blank Making EBC worksheet for them to fill out
  • Making EBC worksheet due for homework; to be collected (analysis grade)

 

Day 6-Part II (activities 4 and 5):

  • Check HW for completion and pass out 2 Post-It notes (different colors) for a Visible Thinking exercise
  • First color Post-It: one claim that they made (from HW)
  • Second color Post-It: best piece of evidence that supports the claim (from HW)
  • Face partners: exchange Making EBC worksheets.  Make notes (on clean sheet of paper) of how well the worksheet stands up to the checklist, being sure to comment on each of the criteria.  When finished, verbally share the critique with partner.
  •  Collect Making EBC worksheets and critiques (analysis grade)

 

Day 7-Part III (activity 1):

  • Read paragraphs 7-11 independently.  RHA and put the paragraphs into your own words; not a summary, but a rephrasing (does not have to be sentence by sentence this time).
  • Fill out Forming EBC and Making EBC worksheets for paragraphs 7-11
  • Complete for homework

 

 

Day 8- Part III (activities 3 and 4):

  • Check homework for completion-  Forming EBC (reading grade)and Making EBC (analysis) for paragraphs 7-11; students will use the HW to do today’s work
  • On the overhead, ask students to copy questions to ponder about making claims:

–          1. What do I mean when I make this claim?  What am I trying to communicate?

–          2. How did I arrive at this claim?

–          3. Can I point to the specific words and sentences in the text from which the claim arises?

–          4. What do I need to explain so that an audience can understand what I mean and where my claim comes from?

–          5. What evidence (quotations) might I use to illustrate my claim?  In what order would I use them?

–          6.  When my claim contains several parts (signposts), how can I break it down. organize the parts, and organize the evidence that goes with them?

–          If my claim involves a comparison or a relationship, how might I present, clarify, and organize my discussion between parts or between texts?

  • Pass out Organizing Evidence Based Claims handout and go over.  Be sure to point out that each claim has more than one part (signpost)
  • Pass out Organizing Evidence Based Claims worksheets.  Students use claims from their homework, expanding upon them to include more than one point (see model in handout) and complete the worksheet.
  • Finish worksheet for homework

 

Day 9- Part III (Activity 5):

  • Check Organizing EBC worksheet for paragraphs 7-11 homework for completion
  • Go over the Checklist (in packet) before pairing up
  • Each student must verbally present his/her claims and evidence to a partner, attempting to convince the partner that their claim is correct.  Partners listen and then formulate (in writing) three questions about the claim, based on what they have heard.   Partners then switch roles.
  • After both partners have spoken, and they have handed over their written questions to the other, each will then write a written answer to each of his/her partner’s questions.   Students must use citations from the text to support their clarifications.
  • Written responses to questions will be finished for homework; to be collected with Organizing EBC worksheet

 

 Day 10- Part IV (activity 1):

  • Collect Organizing EBC for paragraphs 7-11 along with the responses to partner questions  (analysis)
  • Read paragraphs 12-17 (end) independently.  RHA and put the paragraphs into your own words; not a summary, but a rephrasing (does not have to be sentence by sentence this time).
  • Fill out Forming EBC and Making EBC worksheets for paragraphs 12-17; complete for homework

 

Day 11- Part IV (activities 2 and 3):

  • Check homework (two worksheets): Forming EBC (reading) and Making EBC (analysis) for paragraphs 12-17
  • Complete Organizing EBC worksheets for paragraphs 12-17, using HW as help
  • Turning Organizing EBC sheets into a written response:
    • Read through Writing EBC criteria handout (in packet)
    • Pass out the model for Writing EBC and compare to the model for Organizing EBC handout.  Note how the worksheet lent itself to creating the writing piece.
    • In pairs, students will create a three paragraph piece based on the model (paragraph one makes the claim with two points, while paragraphs two and three explain the points with textual evidence respectively)
    • Must finish for homework; to be collected

 

Day 12- Part IV (activities 4 and 5):

  • Collect Organizing EBC worksheets for paragraphs 12-17 and written responses
  • Using the ELMO, place student responses on the overhead for class discussion.  Class will then use the criteria for Writing EBC from their packets to critique student work.
  • Students will then turn to the rubric in the packet, and rate each piece that they have seen on the overhead.

 

Day 13- Part V (activities 1 and 2):

  • Students will go through all notes and completed worksheets for the entire piece.  They will review the text and make a new claim based on the overall piece (cannot be a claim they have previously made).
  • Students will complete a new Organizing EBC worksheet for the entire piece using the THREE POINT claim worksheet instead of the TWO POINT claim sheet they had used earlier.  This worksheet is in the packet.
  • Students will now be using three points (signposts) to support their new claim
  • Finish worksheet for homework

 

 

Day 14- Part V (activity 4):

  • Check Organizing EBC worksheet for completion for the entire text
  • Students will use the Organizing EBC worksheet in order to create their final written responses.  These must now be four paragraphs and will follow the criteria listed on the checklists (in packet)
  • Collect written responses at end of class.

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Filed under Domain 1: Planning and Preparation, Domain 3: Instruction, English 9 Regents

Reflections on Domain 3: Instruction

3a.  Communicating with students

At the beginning of a new unit, students are given a calendar and a schedule of due dates for homework, tests/quizzes, and classroom activities.  In this way, students can organize their own schedules and plan to have work competed on time.  Also, in the event of an absence, students know what has to be made up. 

Students are also given a study packet for each unit as well.   These packets include: introductory information pertinent to the unit, vocabulary word lists, reading/study questions, literary analysis questions, and any supplementary materials that we may need in the unit (poems, stories, articles, worksheets, etc).  All of my unit packets look alike, so students come to know where to find certain materials in them.   The expectation is that all study questions will be answered in 3-5 varied sentences (as a way to improve the development of a response) that include a properly cited embedded quotation from the text (as support).

My quiz formats are all alike as well throughout the year.  Keeping quizzes in a familiar format creates a sense of comfort in the students as there are no surprises.  All reading quizzes are comprised of ten multiple-choice questions (text-based and also related to literary analysis) and three short responses (taken directly from the homework questions).  I tell students that the homework is a dry run for the quiz.  The better job they do on the homework, the better it will stick in their memories as they answer the same questions on the quizzes. 

All vocabulary quizzes also follow a similar format: I read the definition, and students write the appropriate word and spell it correctly.  Students earn ten points for appropriate, correctly spelled words.  Five points are given to responses that are 1-2 letters off in spelling (including a capital letter for what are not proper nouns), and anything more than 2 letters off is marked wrong.  Students are often given bonuses of past vocabulary words or using the words in complete sentences that demonstrate they know what the word means. 

By being upfront with students about quizzes and keeping up with the schedules in the study packets, this helps to alleviate the stress of wondering what’s coming next.  I give as much advance notice for all assignments as possible to allow students to adapt to their personal schedules, which include sports, music and other activities.

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3b. Using questioning and discussion techniques

I ask higher level questions both on quizzes and in the classroom.  I want students to be able to back their responses up with textual evidence, so I follow their answers with, “So how do you know?”  or “What makes you say that?”  Also, when a student responds to a question, I ask others to add to the response.

Students also work in cooperative groups throughout the year.   I mix up the groups so that they get to work a unit with everyone in the class at least once.  I pose questions to each group, and they work together to come up with an answer, which they then present to the rest of the class.  This works especially well with the literary analysis questions that I give in each unit.  For example, during the Shakespeare unit, I divided a list of twelve questions among the six groups.  This allowed the groups to focus in on two particular literary devices in depth (because was group was responsible for only two questions).  When a group presented to the class, the listeners were responsible for writing down what they heard.  During the presentations, I would interject with, “And….” or “Soooo…” or “But…” and students would then elaborate on their responses.  This continued until the question had been thoroughly answered.  By the time we were finished, each student had an answer to all of the questions. 

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3c. Engaging students in learning

For some assignments, I allow students to create the questions from the reading.  I tell them that the questions have to be text-based, but without obvious, fact-level, “point to it” answers.  We work on inferencing with the reading to create higher level thinking questions.  For example, when the enriched students worked with Every Bone Tells a Story (a non-fiction piece they’d read over the summer) during quarter one, they were placed into cooperative groups (one for each of the four hominins discussed in the text).  Each group had a series of tasks to perform, including creating study questions for their assigned section of the book.

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3d. Using assessment in instruction

I followed the categories of the PARCC framework for my grade book categories this year.  They are as follows:

Reading (30%):  This section includes all reading tests/quizzes and homework assignments;

Analysis (20%):  This section includes literary analysis essays, critical thinking writing assignments done online (Reader Response Questions), and literary analysis questions from the units;

Research (20%):  This section includes all the steps of the research process for the main research paper, as well as smaller research projects throughout the year;

Routine Writing (10%):  This section includes journal writing in response to Visible Thinking exercises as well as any writing exercises we do involving grammar/sentence structure;

Narrative Writing (10%):  This section includes personal responses to literature or Visible Thinking exercises in their journal, as well as the enriched short story project and the 60 Day Sojourn done online in conjunction with the Hero’s Journey lessons;

Vocabulary Work (10%):  This section includes the Greek or Latin Root of the Week posting done on the classroom websites as well as all vocabulary quizzes for the unit.

Students are able to monitor their own progress via the Parent Portal online.

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3e. Demonstrating flexibility and responsiveness

I have made it my practice to eat lunch in my classroom in order to be available for students on a regular basis.  They can come to me during period 5 for make-up quizzes, to ask questions, or to seek help with homework/assignments. 

In the event of a student struggling with material, I have been willing to work with that student to help him/her succeed.   I gave a “medical incomplete” on a report card to accommodate a student who suffered from the flu at the end of the second quarter so that he wouldn’t feel stressed in trying to catch up in his missed work.  I have also extended deadlines to students who come to me and ask for help. 

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Filed under Domain 3: Instruction, Reflections on the Danielson Framework

English 9 Regents: Persuasive Writing Related to The Odyssey

This is the research unit that I did with my Regents students.  We took ten class days to prepare for writing the research paper.  The first class was for explaining the process in advance, and the remaining nine classes are outlined below.

Research Paper: War and The Odyssey

 

Your assignment is to create a critical thinking paper; a thoughtful answer to a question of your own devising (which you have cleared with me in advance), based on your own interpretation of specific passages in your research articles and The Odyssey.   Your interpretation should be defended with logical arguments. Clarity and organization in the presentation of your argument are crucial, both to the persuasiveness of your paper and to your grade.

 

You will have a choice between the two following general topics:

  1.  Soldiers returning home from war (any war except the Trojan War)
  2. Loved ones and families of those who went to war and either have yet to return (MIAs and POWs) or who never returned

 

Your task will be to narrow down the topic to a specific war in history, and then create a specific “yes” or “no” question about that topic (see later in these notes for examples).  Once you have the questions formulated (to which the answer is either “yes” or “no”), take your position (in other words, answer your own question).  Once you have your position, you need to come up with three reasons why you answered the way you did (these will become your signposts).  As soon as you finally have your question, your position, and your reasons for your position, you are ready to write your thesis statement.

 

Class activities preparing for writing the paper:

Activity 1:  Writing three questions to which the answer is either “yes” or “no” that relates to soldiers returning from a specific war, or families who await(ed) word on loved ones in a particular war

Activity 2:  Library visit to find sources that will provide information about the selected war as well as finding both “yes” and “no” answers to their questions.  They will then have to decide which of the three questions will be the focus of their paper.  Students need five sources that will both support and provide a counter argument against their position on the question.  No more than two sources may come from the World Wide Web; they may use the electronic databases that the school purchases, or they may use books (but NO encyclopedias of any kind, either print or electronic).

Activity 3:  Taking a clear position and creating a thesis statement with three solid signposts.  Students are then told that they will have a body paragraph for each signpost as well as one body paragraph that will give background information about the war they have chosen (for a minimum of four body paragraphs for the essay).

Activity 4:  Using the five sources, students will create five bibliography cards and number them in the upper right-hand corner.  Students will then put the cards in alphabetical order, therefore creating a preliminary Works Cited list.

Activity 5:  Students must create 50 note cards, taking ten concrete details from each source.  If they cannot get ten details to support and/or argue against their position from a particular source, then the source isn’t strong enough and they have to find another one.  Each note card must contain a direct quotation (concrete detail or CD), and the corresponding number from the source’s bibliography card also goes in the upper right-hand corner of each note card.   Students must also mark in the upper left-hand corner which signpost paragraph the CD supports/argues against or if it goes in the “war background” paragraph.

Activity 6:  Connections to The Odyssey.  For those writing about a soldier returning home from war, the students must find connections to the journey home for Odysseus and relate it to the soldiers returning from war that they are targeting in their paper.   For those writing about loved ones waiting for the return of a soldier, you may focus on either Penelope or Telemachus.   Make note cards for each connection (copy lines that you could possibly embed).  These will be new CDs (at least ONE per signpost).

Activity 7:   Students will divide their 50 note cards into 4 piles (one for each of the aforementioned body paragraphs) based on the notations in the upper left-hand corner of the cards.   By doing so, they will see if they have unbalanced details/research based on the number of cards per pile.  If they have no cards for a particular pile (because they have no CDs to support that particular signpost or information about the war), they know that they will have to return to the research process to find information and make additional cards (including a new bibliography card, if necessary).  They will then choose one of the four piles pile and lay the cards out in front of them.   From there, students must discard 50% of that pile’s CDs that they had originally come up with.  This is where they have to be more discerning about the details that will ultimately end up in the paper (BUT they must keep all cards to show the process they went through).  Repeat for remaining three piles.

Activity 8:   For all the “keeper” cards in the Note Card piles, students will go through and highlight the key phrases from the sentences they’d copied (CDs) to use as embedded quotations.  There will be no “sentence plops” in the paper!

Activity 9:  Students will create a topic sentence outline for the overall paper.  First, students must come up with a “hook” to use as an opener for the introduction of the paper…they must get the reader’s (my) attention and make me want to read what they’ve written.  Choices of hooks include: imagery, an anecdote, a pithy quotation, or a shocking statistic.   All that has to go on the outline is the first sentence or two that they are thinking of using as an opening.  They must then include their improved thesis statement.  From there, they have to outline the body.  They will provide the topic sentence for each body paragraph as well as the sentences embedding the choice of concrete details from their Note Cards (see example below):

A.  Topic Sentence for first signpost

1.   Sentence with embedded quotation of strong support for argument as CD1 (cited).

2.  Sentence with embedded quotation of strong support for argument as CD2 (cited).

3.  Sentence with embedded quotation of counter argument as CD3 (cited).

4.  Sentence with embedded quotation refuting counter argument as CD4 (cited).

5.  Sentence with embedded quotation from The Odyssey making a connection to the topic as CD5 (cited).

Concrete details from Note Cards will have been further pared down to a minimum of five CDs per paragraph.

Once students have finished with their topic sentence outlines, they go on to finish writing the essay by filling in the paragraphs with their commentary.  Final essays due in four weeks, which gives students plenty of time to see me with any questions or problems.

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English 9 Regents: Plato’s “Apology”

Odell LogoOdell Education has created model Making Evidence-Based Claims units for ELA grades 6-12.  For English 9, the chosen work of informational text is Plato’s “Apology.”  The link to the left will take you to the files for this particular unit, and I will be working with my English 9 Regents students on this piece in the 4th quarter.

The unit includes day-by-day lesson plans for close reading and is broken into five parts, each with a suggested number of classes for implementation:

Part I:  “Understanding Evidence-Based Claims”  (1-3 classes)

– Activity 1: Introduction to the unit

– Activity 2: Independent reading

– Activity 3: Read Aloud and Class Discussion

– Activity 4: Model Forming EBCs

Part II:  “Making Evidence-Based Claims” (1-3 classes)

– Activity 1: Independent reading and finding supportive evidence

– Activity 2: Read aloud and class discussion

– Activity 3: Find supporting evidence in pairs

– Activity 4: Class discussion of EBCs

– Activity 5: Forming EBCs in pairs

Part III:  “Organizing Evidence-Based Claims”  (1-3 classes)

– Activity 1: Independent reading and forming EBCs

– Activity 2: Read aloud

– Activity 3: Model organizing EBCs

– Activity 4: Organizing EBCs in pairs

– Activity 5: Class discussion of student EBCs

Part IV:  “Writing Evidence-Based Claims”   (1-3 classes)

– Activity 1:  Independent reading and making EBCs

– Activity 2:  Model writing EBCs

– Activity 3:  Writing EBCs in pairs

– Activity 4:  Class discussion of written EBCs

– Activity 5:  Read aloud and class discussion

– Activity 6:  Independent writing of EBCs

Part V:  “Evidence-Based Writing” (1-2 classes)

– Activity 1:  Independent reading and making EBCs

– Activity 2:  Class discussion of global EBCs

– Activity 3:  Pairs discuss their EBCs

– Activity 4:  Independent writing of the final piece

– Activity 5:  Class discussion of the final writing pieces

In all, the suggested unit length is 5-14 full classes focusing on a 17 paragraph passage.    I think this unit would be better served at the beginning of the year when I am targeting particular writing skills overall.  The skills are the key here, not this particular text selection.

One issue that I would like to address is that of spending 5-14 classes on one particular short passage.   While close reading is key and students need to pay attention to what they read, standardized testing does not reflect this practice.

According to test previews that we have been allowed to peruse, the upcoming exams look like they will be given in 90 minute increments over a three day period.  If the high school tests are going to be anything like the middle school tests being administered April 16-18, 2013, then the format looks as if it will be as follows:

Day 1:  (Test Book 1) reading followed by 42 multiple choice questions (I have heard, but it has not yet been confirmed, that the readings will be an excerpt from a novel, a poem, and an informational piece);

Day 2:  (Test Book 2) reading followed by 21 multiple choice questions AND (Test Book 3) reading and writing with three short-response questions and one extended-response question (I have not heard yet what the day 2 readings will be);

Day 3:  (Test Book 4) reading and writing five short-response questions and one extended response question (again, I have heard that the students will read five articles, respond to each, and then use information from the articles to write an essay… in other words, a Document Based Question (DBQ).

My concern is that with all the time being asked for close reading in the classroom (5-14 DAYS for “Apology”… I think 4-5 DAYS were set aside for Lincoln’s 278-word “Gettysburg Address” in the earlier model units), the students will come to expect that kind of time to spend on reading.  When they are faced with multiple passages in a 90 minute time frame, I am wondering how they will handle the time-added pressure on an already high stakes test.  While it is important to read closely, students also need to learn to read and comprehend in shorter time periods, mirroring testing situations.  To consistently do close reading at a snail’s pace gives students a false sense of how long they will have to complete tasks on standardized tests.   It seems as if we are sending mixed messages, and the students will be the ones who suffer from it.

Just my opinion.

However, I will try Odell’s unit and work with my Regents students on Plato’s “Apology” in an effort to enhance evidence-based writing skills.

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Filed under Domain 1: Planning and Preparation, English 9 Regents

2012 International Symposium on Mythology

We’re All In Myth Together

Symposium for the Study of Mythology, August 2012

Pacifica Graduate Institute

Santa Barbara, California

Susan R. Woodward

 

“Throughout the inhabited world, in all times and under every circumstance, the myths of man have flourished; and they have been the living inspiration of whatever else may have appeared out of the activities of the human body and mind.  It would not be too much to say that myth is the secret opening through which the inexhaustible energies of the cosmos pour into human cultural manifestation.”

–          Joseph Campbell, The Hero With a Thousand Faces

 

In August 2012, I had the privilege of presenting at the International Symposium on Mythology in Santa Barbara, California.  For four days, teachers, authors, story-tellers, and mythologists from more than half a dozen countries shared their experience, knowledge, and talents within the realm of myth.  I was fortunate enough to be selected, along with co-presenter Michael Lambert from Long Island, New York, to share our experiences with students in the classroom.  We worked as “bookend” teachers, me with freshmen and Michael with seniors.  We had them coming and going within the realm of high school.

 

The following outlines the topics I addressed in my part of the presentation as how I incorporate mythology into my curriculum:

 

Literature:

When we read Great Expectations or The Hunger Games, we examine the individuation process of Pip and Katniss Everdeen.   As these characters grow and change, we also follow the growth of Theseus, Cuchulainn, Seigfried, David and Joan of Arc.

 

While tracking the trials along the journeys of Phileas Fogg in Around the World in Eighty Days, Odysseus in The Odyssey, and The Hobbit’s Bilbo Baggins, we also examine the character traits exhibited by Hercules, Kutoyis, Gilgamesh, Quetzalcoatl and Faust as they go through their own trials.  How these characters overcome their obstacles speaks of the values of the culture embodied by these heroes.

 

When Odysseus descends into the Land of the Dead, we also examine the descent of Innana, Wanjiru, KuanYin, Hermodor & Balder, and Izanagi & Izanami.   Students look for common motifs in the tales that demonstrate how the various cultures honor the dead through the performance of certain rites.

In each case with these stories, students create posters to share their findings.

 

The connection of these motifs in literature to the world of myth allows students to compare and contrast the heroes of old to their more modern counterparts.  We also break down each story into the culture’s values and beliefs that shine through, and students realize that these core beliefs actually permeate their own experience.  Values like courage, honesty, cleverness, honoring the dead, and overcoming obstacles speaks as much to their own lives as it does to both mythic and modern literary characters.

 

The Sixty Day Sojourn:

From November 1 through December 31, students participate in the online Sixty Day Sojourn that I created for them.  During The 60 Day Sojourn, we work through each of the steps of the Hero’s Journey a few days at a time.  In 9th grade, I provide a step-by-step approach as an introduction into the work of Joseph Campbell in the hope that they will continue on their own in the future.  My website, Sharing in the Journey of the Hero, can be found at http://herosjourney.ning.com

In class, students build a bulletin board that remains up for the remainder of the year as a point of reference.

The first day a step is discussed, I share examples from movies, television, mythology, poetry, novels, etc. These are listed in the Forum where students join in the discussion and respond with examples of their own. The idea is to create a vast pool of examples to draw from when we move on to the next phase.

The second day offers a quotation from Joseph Campbell and a guided visualization that is intended to lead students to discover specific examples from their own lives.  This is also in the Forum where they are able to share their experiences with the guided imagery. The Forum discussions are meant to be a sharing of examples that came to mind while reading or listening.

 

The third day is for the blogs. I ask introspective questions so that students can examine where they are on their own journey and share their insights with the community. As we are all the heroes of our own life stories, these stories deserve to be heard. The more we share, the more we will see how much we all have in common.

 

The 60 Day Sojourn is an effort to draw people of various nations, cultures, ages, and genders together to examine the things that make us similar. So much effort is spent on diversity (which is a good thing, don’t get me wrong) that we are more conscious of how we are different from one another than of how we are alike.

 

The New York Odyssey:

Students mirror the journey of Odysseus in a modernized version of a haphazard voyage from Troy, New York to Ithaca, New York while making various misadventured pitstops to five New York towns.  Students must use maps and must research the various towns in order to add local color to their writing as they re-work the tales of five of the places that Odysseus visited on his long journey home.  Students work in cooperative groups to create a compiled travel journal.  Each team must begin with a logical reason for why the group is in Troy, New York and why they must return to Ithaca.  Each member writes one leg of the journey, modernizing Homer’s original, and all the tales must work together to create a cohesive whole.  Students must work together to map out the entire journey and make logical transitions from one adventure to the next.   At the end of the project, each group must submit a travel journal that includes each student’s submission, as well as pictures and maps that outline the journey.  Then, in the spirit of Homer’s oral tradition, the groups tell their tales.

 

The Creative Writing Project:

Students write their own myths that utilize the Hero’s Journey pattern.  Each year, I choose a piece of literature that we have read in class and then create the prompt that will inspire their stories.  All students work through the writing process online and receive feedback from other students.  At the end of the project, the students vote on the top stories and those are published in a short story anthology.

inthefootstepscoverWhen, in 2009, we read a series stories of true life heroes, we were inspired by the then-popular television show Heroes.  Students selected one of the real life heroes, and then created a modern superhero character complete with superpowers.  Those stories became the anthology, In the Footsteps…

 

 

weremembercoverThe following year, we read Douglas Adams’ The Long Dark Tea-Time of the Soul in which humans created immortal characters through their stories, but once the humans started to forget about the immortals they created, the immortals (who could not die) were forced into an invisible existence such as the homeless on the streets.  Their task was to create a near-forgotten immortal character and then tell his/her story so as to give him/her a purpose to exist.  The tales of these immortals can be found in We Remember…

Altered Reflections cover RESIZED

AForgedThroughTrialsCoverfter reading The Hobbit in 2011, students created their own stories of journeys and trials in Forged Through Trials.  And in the current spirit of modernizing myths, legends, and fairy tales, this year’s project was to modernize a fairy tale or myth.  We read The Hunger Games and compared certain aspects of the plot to the trials of Theseus, as well as analyzing the film Percy Jackson and the Lightning Thief alongside the tales of Perseus.  The result was Altered Reflections.

 

This year, with the introduction of informational texts mandated by the Common Core State Standards, we read Every Bone Tells a Story.  Students have selected one of the hominin discoveries and have been researching the cultures that once lived in the areas where each was found.  Using their research findings, students will attempt to put flesh on the ancient bones and tell a story about their selected hominin.  Two of the finds, Turkana Boy and Lapedo Child, are of young boys, so some students have elected to write tales that include rites of passage and individuation.   Kennewick Man has inspired tales of the long journey.  As for The Ice Man, the world’s earliest known murder mystery, a couple of students are creating tales of the Land of the Dead.   Although the project is still considered creative writing, it is steeped in research and so meets the standards of the Common Core.

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Filed under Domain 1: Planning and Preparation, Domain 4: Professional Responsibilities, English 9 Enriched